What is the Russia-Europe Nord Stream 2 pipeline?

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FRANKFURT, Germany –


German Chancellor Olaf Scholz has suspended the certification course of for the Nord Stream 2 pure fuel pipeline after Russia acknowledged separatist-held areas in jap Ukraine, with the West fearing a full-scale invasion is subsequent.


The undersea pipeline straight hyperlinks Russian fuel to Europe through Germany and is full however not but working. It has turn into a serious goal as Western governments attempt to exert leverage on Russia to discourage additional army strikes in opposition to its neighbor.


Listed here are key issues to know concerning the pipeline:


WHAT IS NORD STREAM 2?


It is a 1,230-kilometre-long (764-mile-long) pure fuel pipeline underneath the Baltic Sea, operating from Russia to Germany’s Baltic coast.


It runs parallel to an earlier Nord Stream pipeline and would double its capability, to 110 billion cubic meters of fuel a yr. It means Gazprom can ship fuel to Europe’s pipeline system with out utilizing present pipelines operating by Ukraine and Poland.


The pipeline has been stuffed with fuel however had been awaiting approval by Germany and the European Fee.


HOW IS SCHOLZ BLOCKING THE PIPELINE?


Germany’s utility regulator was reviewing the pipeline for compliance with European laws on honest competitors. It is that approval course of that Scholz mentioned Tuesday that he was suspending.


Germany was required to submit a report on how the pipeline would have an effect on vitality safety, and Scholz mentioned that report was being withdrawn.


WHY IS SCHOLZ TAKING ACTION NOW?


Scholz, who took energy in December, backed the mission as finance minister for his predecessor, Angela Merkel, and his Social Democratic Occasion supported it. As Russia massed troops close to Ukraine’s border, Scholz averted referring to Nord Stream 2 particularly whilst U.S. officers mentioned it will not transfer ahead if Russia invaded.


However Scholz warned that Russia would face “extreme penalties” and that sanctions have to be prepared forward of time. Germany had agreed with the U.S. to behave in opposition to Nord Stream 2 if Russia used fuel as a weapon or attacked Ukraine.


The chancellor mentioned Tuesday that Russia recognizing the independence of rebel-held areas in Ukraine marked a “severe break of worldwide legislation” and that it was essential to “ship a transparent sign to Moscow that such actions will not stay with out penalties.”


WHY DOES RUSSIA WANT THE PIPELINE?


State-owned fuel big Gazprom says it is going to meet Europe’s rising want for inexpensive pure fuel and complement present pipelines by Belarus and Ukraine.


Nord Stream 2 would provide a substitute for Ukraine’s getting older system that Gazprom says wants refurbishment, decrease prices by saving transit charges paid to Ukraine, and keep away from episodes like temporary 2006 and 2009 fuel cutoffs over worth and cost disputes between Russia and Ukraine.


Europe is a key marketplace for Gazprom, whose gross sales assist the Russian authorities funds. Europe wants fuel as a result of it is changing decommissioned coal and nuclear vegetation earlier than renewable vitality sources reminiscent of wind and photo voltaic are sufficiently constructed up.


WHY IS THE U.S. AGAINST NORD STREAM 2?


The White Home was in “shut consultations with Germany” and welcomed their announcement, press secretary Jen Psaki tweeted. She added that the Biden administration can be following with its personal measures Tuesday.


The U.S., European NATO allies reminiscent of Poland, and Ukraine have opposed the mission going again earlier than the Biden administration, saying it will increase Europe’s dependence on Russian fuel and offers Russia the potential for utilizing fuel as a geopolitical weapon. Europe imports most of its fuel and will get roughly 40% of its provide from Russia.


The pipeline, which went ahead underneath Merkel, has been an irritant in U.S.-German relations. Biden waived sanctions in opposition to the pipeline’s operator when it was virtually full in return for an settlement from Germany to take motion in opposition to Russia if it used fuel as a weapon or assaults Ukraine.


In Congress, Republicans and Democrats — in a uncommon little bit of settlement — have lengthy objected to Nord Stream 2.


WILL SUSPENDING NORD STREAM 2 MAKE EUROPEANS FREEZE THIS WINTER?


No. Even earlier than Scholz’s transfer, regulators made clear the approval course of couldn’t be accomplished within the first half of the yr. Meaning the pipeline was not going to assist meet heating and electrical energy wants this winter because the continent faces a fuel scarcity.


The winter scarcity has continued to feed issues about counting on Russian fuel. Russia held again from short-term fuel gross sales — despite the fact that it fulfilled long-term contracts with European prospects — and did not fill its underground storage in Europe.


Russian President Vladimir Putin has mentioned the scarcity underlines the necessity to rapidly approve Nord Stream 2, rising issues about Russia utilizing fuel to realize leverage over Europe.


COULD RUSSIA CUT OFF GAS TO EUROPE IN RETALIATION?


Whereas Europe wants Russian fuel, Gazprom additionally wants the European market. That interdependence is why many assume Russia will not reduce off provides to Europe even when the Ukraine battle escalates additional, and Russian officers have underlined they haven’t any intention to do this.


In the meantime, the Ukraine disaster, on high of the winter scarcity, is has already given European governments extra purpose to search out their fuel someplace else, reminiscent of by liquefied pure fuel, or LNG, introduced by ship from the U.S., Algeria and different locations.


Former Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, who’s now deputy chair of Russia’s Safety Council, tweeted his displeasure after Germany suspended Nord Stream 2: “Welcome to the courageous new world the place Europeans are very quickly going to pay 2,000 euros for 1.000 cubic meters of pure fuel!”


The spot market fuel worth in Europe was 829 euros ($940) per thousand cubic metres Tuesday. It was 1,743 euros (practically $2,000) in late December amid jitters over the Ukraine disaster, and costs have since fallen as Europe has secured extra LNG.


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Related Press writers Vladimir Isachenkov in Moscow, Geir Moulson and Frank Jordans in Berlin, and Lisa Mascaro and Ellen Knickmeyer in Washington contributed

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